XRAY 145



Office Hours 
BIOL 101 
BIOL 120 
XRAY 145 
XRAY 146 

Hello, this page is still under construction. Please feel free to look over the following syllabus.

This course is available during the Fall semester to students enrolled in the Radiology Program.





            This course will provide an educational inquiry in biochemical and general biological principles, and in the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. Correlation of the same in radiographic procedures.


            4 Credit Hours (3 Lecture and 2 Laboratory)


  Admission to the Radiological Program


Upon successful completion of the course, the student will be able to:

  1. Explain basic biological principles.
  2. Describe several aspects of human anatomy and physiology.
  3. Explain cellular organization, structure, function, and metabolism.
  4. List and describe major categories of tissues.
  5. Summarize and explain the importance and mechanisms of biological processes.
  6. Describe each body system and its components.
  7. Explain the composition and function of the integumentary system.
  8. Describe the structure and function of the skeletal system.
  9. Explain the function and structure of the muscular system.
  10. Discuss the structure and function of the nervous system.
  11. Utilize laboratory models and cross-sections in order to support further understanding of x-ray technology.




      I.  Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

A. Terminology

  1. Human Body Plan

II. Structural Organization

    1. Chemical
        1. Matter, Inorganic and Organic Compounds
        2. pH
    2. Cellular
        1. Structure and Function
        2. Importance of Working Unit
        3. Transport
        4. Cellular cycle and Reproduction
    3. Metabolism and Energy Utilization
    4. Homeostatic Mechanisms
  1. Tissues
  1. Epithelial
  2. Connective
  3. Muscle
  4. Nervous
  5. Membranes
  1. Skin and the Integumentary System
  1. Structure and Function
  2. Accessory Organs
  1. Skeletal System
  1. Functions
  2. Growth and Development
  3. Structure of Bone
  4. Classification of Bone
  5. Skeletal Divisions
  6. Landmarks
  1. Muscular System
  1. Functions

B. Physiology of Skeletal Muscle Contraction

C. Structure of Skeletal Muscle

D. Skeletal Muscle Contraction

E. Smooth and Cardiac Muscle

  1. Nervous System
  1. Introduction to Structure and Function
  2. Neurons and Cell Types
  3. Nerve Cell Impulse
  4. Synapse and Reflex Arc
  1. Cross-Sectional Anatomical Study
  1. System Assessment and Identification of Sections


  1. To develop an understanding of basic biological principles.
  2. To comprehend the cell unit of structure and function as well as the physical and chemical aspects of the cell.
  3. To assess each human body system for functional and structural relationships.
  4. To learn human anatomy and physiology that will further support understanding in the study of x-ray technology.


Attendance in lecture and laboratory is expected to successfully complete the course. Missed quizzes assignments, laboratories, lab tests, or final exams will not be made up. All assignments must be turned in on time (at the beginning of class when collected by instructor). Keep returned assignments and record of your grade throughout the semester. Your instructor will give you a tentative schedule for the lecture tests. Additional homework or classroom assignments may be given by an instructor; the point value will then be added to the total points for the class.

Our goal is to keep a challenging, relaxed, learning environment that enhances each student's potential. It is each student's responsibility to utilize class time, speak softly during group activities, and address others in the class in both a polite and professional manner. Also, cell phones are not to ring or be out during class or laboratory sessions.

Be prepared for a quiz or assignments each session. If you feel you need any special accommodations because of a documented disability or have other concerns, please contact counseling at 545-3060 and your instructor.

Laboratory: Emphasis will be placed on skeletal, muscular and cross-sectional anatomy. There are ten (10) major groupings of 3-4 sections each that are required for testing in cross-sectional anatomy. Three (3) of these groupings must be completed in XRAY 145, the other seven (7) and a comprehensive test of all ten will be completed in XRAY 146. Your instructor will provide you with a list of completion dates for this semester's requirements. No more than one simulator grouping may be tested on during the space of one week. Each student will be responsible for learning and demonstrating proficiency in identifying the required structures on each simulator of the grouping being studied. No simulators or sections may be removed from the classroom. Colored copies of simulators and workbooks are available for use in or out of the library. Workbooks provided in the classroom may only be checked out strictly for brief amounts of time (arrange and sign out with instructor, thank you). Your instructor encourages you to work in small groups and quiz each other throughout the semester prior to your cross-sectional testing. For further instructions refer to class schedule and cross-sectional handout.

Synopsis: Two (2) brief summaries of current articles. Each synopsis should be at least 5-10 typed complete sentences. Summarize and include your opinion of the article while indicating its relevance to this course. You must clearly identify the article by title, journal name, date, volume # and page #. A copy of the article must be turned in with each typed synopsis. Your instructor will provide dates for completion.

Other: In addition to lecture tests, laboratory tests and a comprehensive final, your end of the semester grade will include individual research, group projects, participation, quizzes, assignments, and online activities.


Lecture Tests ............................................................................

Laboratory Tests ......................................................................

Synopsis, Assignments, Quizzes &/or Participation .............

Comprehensive Final Exam .....................................................

Total Points ......................................................................................

  1. Each student is expected to be present each session for successful completion of this course. If you are absent, late, or have to leave early for any reason, it is your responsibility to find out what material, handouts or assignments were missed. However, if points were missed, you will not have the opportunity to make them up. If you do not complete cross-sectional laboratory tests or other laboratory exercises on or before test dates, your score will result in a zero. You must be present for final exam and laboratory tests or score will result in a zero. Each absence beyond 3 will decrease student's overall final course percentage by 10%. Each late or early exit from course will be recorded and a total of 3 (over 7 minutes) of either will equal 1 absence. If you are approved to exit for an ultrasound, your instructor will need written documentation.

  1. Complete your own work (if suspected of cheating, grade will result in a zero), turn assignments in on time, use pencil on lab exercises, practice lab safety and use equipment with care.

  1. Students will not receive points for late or missed work. If given, make-up lecture test (limit 1) will be penalized 10% and will be completed (within one week from original test date) on the day of your return.

  1. Please see your instructor for any additional questions or concerns.

  1. Your grade will be calculated using the following scale (C or better is required for XRAY Program):

90.5 - 100 % = A     83.5 - 90.4 % = B     77.0 - 83.4 % = C     below 77.0 = F

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