Normal - Variation around a mean

Disease - A form of life beyond normal

Etiology - Reason for disease state

Pathogenesis - Development of disease





Extrinsic Factors - (factors outside the body)


Trauma - Injury

Radiation -

Temperature -

Chemicals -

Organisms - Bacteria, Virus, Mycoplasmas


Intrinsic Factors (Inside the body)


Age -

Sex -

Previous Illness -

Genetic Inheritance -


Cell Structure -





Nucleic Acids


Nuclear Membrane


Somatic Death - Death of an entire individual



Rigor Mortis - stiffness of muscle


Algor Mortis - cooling of the body


livor Mortis - postmortem lividity, the settling of blood to

the pull of gravity



Body Response to Injury


Redness - Rubor

Heat - Calor

Pain - Dolor

Swelling - tumor the mixture of fluid and cells is

called (exudate)


















Cell Structure


(Extra Nuclear)





Rough EndoPlasmic Reticulum

Smooth EndoPlasmic Reticulum

Golgi Bodies

Plasmalemma (cell membrane)




Coagulative Necrosis - Cell maintains it's outline, and

tissue will remain.


Liquefactive Necrosis - Necrotic tissue will liquify

(Neurons, Brain cells)


Caseous Necrosis - Cell disintegrate but a fin e outline of

the cell remains for months or years.


Gangrene - coagulative necrosis due to a lack of blood


2 types

1. Dry Gangrene (External)

2. Wet Gangrene (Internal)



Fat (Pancreatic) Necrosis - Enzymes form Fatty acids, due

primarily to a rupture of pancreatic duct. Hydrolytic

Enzymes (lipases) lyse lipids of adipose tissue. These are

combined with calcium this produces deposits of soap.


Necrotic tissue leaks enzymes into the blood stream.




Blood Analysis


(CPK) creatine Phosphokinase


(LDH) lactic dehydrogenase


(GOT) glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase



Cellular Injury A Death


(Modes of cellular injury)


1. Deficiency of O2

2. Physical

3. Living Infectious Agents

4. Chemical Agents


Sublethal injury of Cells -


Degenerative Changes -


1. Affect the Cytoplasm

2. Nucleus not severely affected


Form of Degeneration


1. Excess water building (cellular swell)

2. Accumulation of lipid

3. Reduction of mass (shrink) atrophy


Cellular Death


Necrosis - Cell Death

Pyknosis - Death of the Nucleus

Pyknotic - Nuclei that are dead

Karyolysis - Nucleus loses staining ability



Bilirubin - Non iron containing moiety that is carried to the

liver. Where it is secreted as part of the



Leukocyte - (lympocyte) - Presented in exudates in small

numbers, until the Inflammation is chronic.



Non Cellular Exudates


Serous - contains protein leaked by permeable blood vessels -

Blister Fluid


Transudates - Collection of fluid in body cavities, protein

poor, cell poor

Fibrinous - When the Protein contains abundant fibrinogen


Mucinous Catarrhal - Forms on the surface of mucous



Lymphatic System - Where an area is inflamed there is an

increase in the amount of lymph draining

from an area.


Lymphangitis - Inflammations of a lymphatic vessel


Lymphadenitis - where a lymph node becomes inflamed.



Chemotaxis - Chemical signals that direct orientation of

movement of Leukocytes.




Granular - Neutrophils - 1st to appear

eosinophils -

basophils -


Smooth - monocytes -

Lymphocytes -


Polymorphonuclear neutrophils - PMN

1st to appear after inflammation.


Half Life - 6 hours

5000 @ cubic millimeter

can be 100X this amount in reserve

produced in bone morrow.





Blood and Immunity



Red cells - erythrocytes

No nucleus


White cells - Leukocytes



A. Monomorphonuclear series -


Monocytes - 6% - macrophage

Lymphocytes - 25% - microphage (bacteria, virus)

Produced antibodies




B. Polymorphonuclear series -


Neutrophils - 65% - microphage

eosinophils (2%) - Increase with allergies

and parasites.



platlets - clotting of blood


Eosinophil - appears in relatively small numbers -congregate

at the sites of allergic reaction.


Basophil - contains enzymes, heparin, histamine are released

in certain immunologic reaction.


Monocytes - 3-4 times longer life than granular leukocytes

are neutrophils but in smaller numbers - as

exudate ages the numbers may increase.


the monocytes in circulating blood in a macro phage.


(RES) Reticuloendothelial System

Macrophage system processes hemoglobin of red blood cells

that have ended their life span


Kupfer - Population of less mobile cells lining the cells in

blood channels in the spleen, liver, bone marrow.







Purulent - formed in response to bacterial infection.





Humoral Immune Response - is effected by immunoglobulins

(gamma globulins) of the blood are

made by the host in response to

antigenic material.


Cell medicated reaction - Carried out by lympocytes which

have proliferated in response to

introduction of the antigen

(without immunoglobulins)


lymphocytes tend to concentrate in certain tissues (lymphoid

tissues) make a coordinated system





The System Includes


1. Lymph Nodes

2. Spleen

3. Thymus

4. Lymphoid Tissue

5. Bone Marrow



Spleen - large mass of lymphoid and reticuloendothial cells.

Interposed in the course of the blood stream.


Thymus - Lymphoid tissue located in the thorax anterior to

the upper part of the heart and great vessels

consist of a reticular frame work thymus tends to

atrophy with age.


T Lymphocytes - Thymus dependent

B Lymphocytes - Thymus independent






IGg Group - are important in resistance to infection.


IGm - are found in the circulating fluids, and are the first

to be Synthesized early in antibody response.


IGa - are produced along surfaces and in the lymphoid tissue


IGe - Produced in lymphoid tissue and secreted into

fluid and readily attach to most cells or tissue

basophils around the body.





Mouth - teeth



Small Intestine

1. Duodenum

2. Jejunum

3. Ileum

4. Colon

5. Anus


Liver - produces bile, emulsifies fat destroys injured



Gall Bladder - stores bile


Duct - connects to small Intestine




Nutrient Where digested Enzymes


Starch Mouth - SM. I. Ptyalin

Small I. Amylase



Maltose S.I. Maltose

Lactose S.I. Lactose

Sucrose S.I. Sucrose

Lipids S.I. Lipase

S.I. Bile(not enzyme)

Protein STOMACH Pepsin - Rennin

S.I. - trypsin




Herbivorous - eat plants

Carnivorous - eat meat

Omnivorous - eat both plants and animals


Alimentary Canal - digestive tract


Food - chewed - pharynx(throat) - epiglottis - trachea(trap

door) - esophagus - stomach secretes HCL and pepsin


Stomach roses 1/2 million cells @ minute all cells are

replaced every 3 days.


Ulcers can occur where there is not enough mucus secreted.


Small Intestine - Duodenum - jejunum - Ilium - Digestion

takes place in duodenum.


Sodium Bicarbonate is secreted Enzymes from pancreas are

secreted and from cells in the duodenum.


Colon - water removed

vitamin K absorbed (Bacteriodes Frog.)


E COLI - complete with pathogenic bacteria

E COLI - can cause cystitis of the bladder.


Staphlycoccus Aureus - invade a wound.









Symbiotic Bacteria


Ruminants - Bacteria Important


Omasum -


Abomasum -True stomach


Reticulum - (Honey Comb)

Rumen - a red bacterial activity



Grains go directly to the reticulum


Hay and Forge:


In digestion compartment of ruminant


1 billion bacteria - Break down

1 million protozoa - cellulose


to acetate, propionate, butyrate



Large amounts of methane gas are produced also CO2


18% of the ruminants food calories end up as methane.


Prehension - harvest and convey food to the mouth


Mastication - chewing


Cow eats large amounts, rest and regurgitates a bolus of

material to the mouth.




Function of Mammalian Liver


Regulation of blood glucose


Removal of nitrogen from excess amino acids and production of

urea production of plasma proteins for the blood.


Destruction of old R.B.C.


Detoxification of poisonous substance










Heart - 4 chambered muscular organ


Right and left Atrium

Right and left Ventricle


Arteries - large vessles that carry blood away from the heart


- thick walled

- contains elastic fibers

- layers of involuntary muscles


largest artery - Aorta

Veins - Carry blood to the heart


1. thinner walls

2. less elastic fiber and muscular tissue


Valves along the way prevent blood from backing up.


Largest vein - Vena Cava


Capillaries -

Smallest Arteries (arterioles)

Smallest veins (venules)


Food, O2, diffuse out of the capillary walls into the (ICF)

(Inter Cellular Fluid)


BY reverse process waste leaves by the same way.



Circulatory Route


Blood in vena cava


blood enters right atrium


blood forced into right ventricle


sends blood to pulmonary artery


Blood enters capillaries around air sacs -

O2 absorbed - CO2 excreted


(bright red) Pulmonary Vein - to heart

left atrium


left ventricle


pumps blood to the aorta


Takes less than 20 seconds



Circuit Of Blood


1. Pulmonary Circulation


2. Systemic Circulation


3. Portal Circulation



Lymph and Lymph Circulation


Cells of body are bathed by fluid


Largly water with small amounts of dissolved nutrients

that will be used by cells, wastes, secretions



Also contains W.B.C. that pass through the capillaries.


Lymph Nodes - Manufacture Certain



During infection they swell



Hemogram RBC - red blood cells

WBC - white blood cells

HB - hemoglobin

PCU - packed cell volume





Neutrophils - Pus forming infection






Lymphcytes - End stages of acute infection

Monocytes -



Eosinophils - Allergic reaction or parasitic


Abnormal or immature - disease of bone marrow


Lymph Nodes