estradiol 17 B
T4 and T3
release from pit.
inhib. gastric activity
maintain repo. tract
trophic affect on
Stimul. acid sec.
Stim. sec. sexual
Stim. WBC prod.
Lipid and chol
Amino acids with
Sex hormones, Hormones
pituitary hor. PTH,
First messenger : Plasma membrane; cyclic AMP "second mess."
AMP produced from ATP by the enzyme adenylate cyclase
AMP activates protein kineases - add phosphate from ATP to
Protein which allows the protein to catalyze a reaction.
These include : regulate enzymes, alter plasma membrane.
Cyclic AMP broken down by phosphodiesterase
Other substances may become second messenger :
Alter cell functions by activating genes
Pass through the plasma membrane
Bind with receptors in the nucleus
Genes produce specialized proteins ( usually enzymes )
These catalyze the effect indicated by the hormone
Calcitonin functions include :
Both an endocrine and an exocrine gland
Endocrine portion is composed of islet cells
Alpha cells produce glucagon
Beta cells produce insulin
The actions of glucagon and insulin are as follows:
Composed of the adrenal cortex and medulla
Each is structurally and functionally different
The medulla secretes catecholamines
The cortex produces corticosteriods
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Are sympathetic agents
Metabolism of Carbo.
Supplement sex hormones
Interstitial cells produce testosterone
Testosterone promotes secondary sex characteristics
Estrogen peoduced by ovarian follicles and corpus luteum
Estrogen also produced by the placenta, adrenal cortex
*Also produced in the testes of the male
Progesterone produced by the corpus luteum
Small cone shaped gland
Located in the roof of third venrricle near corpora
Produces melatonin which affects the hypothalamus
Affect the release of GRH and ACTH
Secretes thymosin which stimulates T cells after
Stimulates parietal cells HCl
Stimulate H2O and bicarb. in
Contraction of gall bladder
Inhibits gastric emptying