I. Introduction to Biology

            A. Biology as the Science of Life

                        1. The nature of science

a.       the Scientific Method

b.      implications from the methods of science

2. Some laws and theories related to life

3. Characteristics of life

            B. Evolution as a Unifying Theme of Life

                        1. The meaning of evolution

                        2. Charles Darwin – the man, the scientist

                        4. The mechanism of evolution

                        5. Evidence of evolution


II. Cells as the Basic Units of Life

            A. Cell Theory

                        1. Historical development

                        2. Its implications

            B. Cell Structures and Their Functions

            C. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Compared

            D. Higher Organization of Cells

                        1. Organization in animals

                        2. Organization in plants

            E. Physical Nature of Protoplasm

            F. Movement of Materials

                        1. Passive transport

                        2. Active transport


III. Some Chemistry of Life

            A. Atoms

            B. Chemical Bonding

            C. Inorganic Chemicals of Life

            D. Organic Chemicals of Life

            E. Chemical Reactions Related to Life

                        1. Enzymes in chemical reactions

                        2. Energy in chemical reactions

                        3. The role of ATP

            F. The gene chemical

                        1. DNA structure and replication

                        2. Gene action and protein synthesis

                        3. The definition of a gene





IV. Energy Relationships in Life

            A. Various Forms of Energy

            B. First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics

            C. Making Energy Available to Life

                        1. The process of photosynthesis

                        2. The leaf as a photosynthetic organ

            D. Using Energy in the Cell

                        2. Anaerobic respiration

                        3. Aerobic respiration


V. Continuity of Life – Reproduction and Development

            A. Cell Division Involving Mitosis

            B. Asexual Reproduction

            C. Cell Division Involving Meiosis

            D. Sexual Reproduction and Development

                        1. Higher plants

                        2. Higher animals


VI. Continuity of Life – Patterns of Inheritance

A. Mendel’s Principles of Inheritance

B. Mendelian Ratios

C. Neo-Mendelian Inheritance

E. Population Genetics

            1. Gene pool

            2. The Hardy-Weinberg law

F. Molecular Genetics

1. Mutations and Chromosomal Aberrations

2. Extra chromosomal genes

G. Applications of Genetic Techniques


VII. Interactions of Life

            A. Science of Ecology

            B. Biosphere

                        1. The components of the biosphere

                        2. The biomes of the biosphere

                        3. Factors in biome distribution

                        4. Factors influencing distribution of life in water

            C. Ecosystem

                        1. Components of the system

                        2. The economy of the system

                        3. Regulation of the system

                        4. Changing the system

                        5. Conserving the system

                        6. Interspecific and intraspecific interactions of the system

                        7. Man in the ecosystem of the world